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Elements Around the World
Group VI A Elements
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Transistion Metals
Group VI A Elements
Group 17 Elements: Halogens
Group 2a Elements- Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 1a-Alakali Metals

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN
  • Atomic Mass Average: 15.9994
  • Boiling Point: 90.33K -182.82C -297.08F
  • nConductivity
  • Electrical:
    Thermal: 0.0002674 W/cmK
  • nDensity: 1.429g/L @ 273K & 1atm
  • nDescription:
  • Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas
  • nEnthalpy of Atomization: 249.4 kJ/mole @ 25C
  • nEnthalpy of Fusion: 0.22 kJ/mole
  • nEnthalpy of Vaporization: 3.41 kJ/mole
  • nHeat of Vaporization: 3.4099kJ/mol
  • nMelting Point: 50.5K -222.65C -368.77F
  • nMolar Volume: 14 cm3/mole
  • nOptical Refractive Index: 1.000271 (gas) 1.221 (liquid)
  • nPhysical State (at 20C & 1atm): Gas
  • nSpecific Heat: 0.92J/gK

Chemical Properties of Oxygen 

n
  • Electrochemical Equivalent: 0.29847g/amp-hr
  • nElectronegativity: 3.44 (Pauling); 3.5 (Allrod Rochow)
  • nHeat of Fusion: 0.22259kJ/mol
  • nIncompatibilities:
  • oxidizable materials
  • nIonization Potential
  • First: 13.618
  • Second: 35.117
  • Third: 54.934
  • nValance Electron Potential (-eV): -20.6

oxygen.jpg

 
Physical Properties of Sulfur
  • nAtomic Mass Average: 32.066
  • nBoiling Point: 717.9K 444.75C 832.55F
  • nConductivity
  • Electrical: 5.0E-24 106/cm 
    Thermal: 0.00269 W/cmK
  • nDensity: 2.07g/cc @ 300K
  • nDescription:
  • Solid pale yellow non-metal that is stable in air and water but burns if heated.
  • nEnthalpy of Atomization: 278.7 kJ/mole @ 25C
  • nEnthalpy of Fusion: 1.72 kJ/mole
  • nEnthalpy of Vaporization: 9.62 kJ/mole
  • nHardness Scale
  • Mohs: 2
  • nMelting Point: 388.51K 115.36C 239.65F
  • nMolar Volume: 15.5 cm3/mole
  • nOptical Refractive Index: 1.001111
  • nPysical State (at 20C & 1atm): Solid
  • nSpecific Heat: 0.71J/gK
  • nVapor Pressure = 2.65E-20Pa@115.36C
 
 
Chemical Properties of Sulfur
 
  • nElectrochemical Equivalent: 0.299g/amp-hr
  • nElectronegativity: 2.58 (Pauling); 2.44 (Allrod Rochow)
  • nHeat of Fusion: 1.7175kJ/mol
  • nIonization Potential
  • nFirst: 10.36
  • nSecond: 23.33
  • nThird: 34.83
  • nValance Electron Potential (-eV): 160

sulfur.jpg

 

Physical Properties of Selenium
 
  • nAtomic Mass Average: 78.96
  • nBoiling Point: 958K 685C 1265F
  • nConductivity
  • Electrical: 1.0E-12 106/cm 
    Thermal: 0.0204 W/cmK
  • nDensity: 4.79g/cc @ 300K
  • nDescription:
  • Dark gray lustrous rods or dark red crystals of non-metal. Burns in contact with air but is unaffected by water. Disolves in alkalis and concentrated HNO3.
  • nEnthalpy of Atomization: 205.9 kJ/mole @ 25C
  • nEnthalpy of Fusion: 6.69 kJ/mole
  • nEnthalpy of Vaporization: 26.3 kJ/mole
  • nFlammablity Class: Combustible Solid
  • nHardness Scale
  • Brinell: 736 MN m-2
  • Mohs: 2
  • nHeat of Vaporization: 37.7kJ/mol
  • nMelting Point: 494K 221C 430F
  • nMolar Volume: 16.42 cm3/mole
  • nOptical Refractive Index: 1.000895
  • nPhysical State (at 20C & 1atm): Solid
  • nSpecific Heat: 0.32J/gK
  • nVapor Pressure = 0.695Pa@221C 

 

Chemical Properties of Selenium
 
  • nElectrochemical Equivalent: 0.7365g/amp-hr
  • nElectron Work Function: 5.9eV
  • nElectronegativity: 2.55 (Pauling); 2.48 (Allrod Rochow)
  • nHeat of Fusion: 6.694kJ/mol
  • nIncompatibilities:
  • Acids, strong oxidizers, chromium trioxide, potassium bromate, cadmium
  • nIonization Potential
  • First: 9.752
  • Second: 21.19
  • Third: 30.82
  • Valance Electron Potential (-eV): 120

selenium.jpg

  Physical Properties of Tellurium
  • nAtomic Mass Average: 127.6
  • nBoiling Point: 1261K 988C 1810F
  • nConductivity
  • Electrical: 2.0E-6 106/cm 
    Thermal: 0.0235 W/cmK
  • nDensity: 6.24g/cc @ 300K
  • nDescription:
  • Silvery white metal-looking non-metal that is usually obtained as a dark grey powder. It is unaffected by water and HCl, but burns in air or oxygen and dissolves in HNO3.
  • nEnthalpy of Atomization: 190.4 kJ/mole @ 25C
  • nEnthalpy of Fusion: 17.49 kJ/mole
  • nEnthalpy of Vaporization: 50.6 kJ/mole
  • nFlammablity Class: Combustible Solid
  • nHardness Scale
  • Brinell: 180 MN m-2
  • Mohs: 2.25
  • nHeat of Vaporization: 52.55kJ/mol
  • nMelting Point: 722.8K 449.65C 841.37F
  • nMolar Volume: 20.42 cm3/mole
  • nOptical Reflectivity: 50%
  • nOptical Refractive Index: 1.000991
  • nPhysical State (at 20C & 1atm): Solid
  • nSpecific Heat: 0.2J/gK
  • nVapor Pressure = 23.1Pa@449.65C
Chemical Properties of Tellurium
 
  • nElectrochemical Equivalent: 1.1902g/amp-hr
  • nElectron Work Function: 4.95eV
  • nElectronegativity: 2.1 (Pauling); 2.01 (Allrod Rochow)
  • nHeat of Fusion: 17.49kJ/mol
  • nIncompatibilities:
  • Oxidizers, chlorine, cadmium
  • nIonization Potential
  • nFirst: 9.009
  • nSecond: 18.6
  • nThird: 27.96
  • nValance Electron Potential (-eV): 59

 Physical Properties of Polonium

  • nAtomic Mass Average: 208.9824
  • nBoiling Point: 1235K 962C 1764F
  • nConductivity
  • Electrical: 0.0219 106/cm 
    Thermal: 0.2 W/cmK
  • nDensity: 9.3g/cc @ 300K
  • nDescription:
  • Radioactive and fairly volatile silvery grey metal that dissolves in dilute acids.
  • nEnthalpy of Atomization: 134 kJ/mole @ 25C
  • nEnthalpy of Vaporization: 60.3 kJ/mole
  • nMelting Point: 527K 254C 489F
  • nMolar Volume: 22.73 cm3/mole
  • nPysical State (at 20C & 1atm): Solid
  • nSpecific Heat: 0.12J/gK
  • nVapor Pressure = 0.0176Pa@254
Chemical Properties of Polonium
 
  • nElectrochemical Equivalent: 3.8986g/amp-hr
  • nElectronegativity: 2 (Pauling); 1.76 (Allrod Rochow)
  • nHeat of Fusion: 60.1kJ/mol
  • nIonization Potential
  • First: 8.42
  • nValance Electron Potential (-eV): -12.5

Reaction Patterns

Although the 6A elements show metalic properties, none of them act like metals in reactions, they typically bond with metals and become 2- anions.  they exhibit this behavior in an attempt to reach Noble Gas configuration. 

Uses

 

  • nPolonium- Used for nuclear batteries, neutron source, antistatic agents, film cleaner
  • nTellurium- Used to improve the machining quality of metal products and to color glass and ceramics. Also used in thermoelectric devices, vulcanization of rubber, percussion caps, battery plate protectors and electrical resistors.
  • nOxygen- Forms almost 21% of atmosphere. Used in steel making, welding, water purification, cement. It is also required for supporting life and combustion.
  • nSulfur- Used in matches, gunpowder, fireworks, batteries, vulcanization of rubber, medicines, permanent wave lotion and pesticides. Also for making sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
  • nSelenium- Used in photoelectric cells, TV cameras, as a semiconductor in solar batteries, light meters, copy machines, anti-dandruff shampoo and rectifiers. Also colors glass red.  Possibly an agent to fight cancer.

 

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